Sunday, May 24, 2020
Since the beginning of time research and statistics have exercised a vital role in psychology. In this succinct writing an elaboration of how research and statistics are utilized in psychology is revealed. Furthermore, the how and why of such components are expounded herein and a detailed look at primary and secondary data are exposed. Research, statistics, primary, and secondary data are imperative in psychological analysis. Implementing each of these variants in psychological research may prove beneficial to the researcher when properly appropriated in psychological exploration. In that regard, this discussion begins by portraying the role that research plays in psychology and gives a general synopsis to define each role.Ã¢â¬ ¦show more contentÃ¢â¬ ¦Additionally, statistics can be utilized to reveal a theory as inaccurate. In a formal sense, Ã¢â¬Å"Statistics is a branch of mathematics that focuses on the organization, analysis, and interpretation of a group of numbers.Ã¢â¬ (Aron, Aron, Coups, 2009, p. 2). In addition to focusing on the organization and analysis of numbers, statistics is divided into two primary branches. The first branch of statistics is descriptive statistics and the second branch is inferential statistics. Descriptive statistics is relevant in defining or summarizing the role a group o f numbers play in research. However, inferential statistics assist the researcher in drawing conclusions and making inferences from numbers based on research, but not limited to that research. Inferential statistics go beyond the premature stage of numerical research and delve into a deeper level of comprehension for the researcher. Aron, et al (2009) states that, Ã¢â¬Å"statistics is a basic process employed by every human that requires observation. Furthermore, statistics help define what something means or what causes it.Ã¢â¬ Lastly, you perceive or expect a particular outcome based on your research and your intuitive nature. A prime example of implementing statistics in research can be conveyed through surveys. For example, an election poll may validate that 3 million voters are voting for Bill Clinton, whileShow MoreRelatedResearch Statistics and Psychology Paper977 Words Ã |Ã 4 PagesResearch Statistics and Psychology Paper Roberta Parker PSY/315 June 10, 2011 Dr. Julie Wilson Research Statistics and Psychology Paper Research plays a major role in psychology, which research is understood through statistics. Psychologists depend on research to understand theories and to understand how people behave, think, and feel. Research needs to be organized to be understood by psychologists; therefore statistics help organize the information and make the connection between the researchRead MoreResearch, Statistics, and Psychology Paper984 Words Ã |Ã 4 PagesResearch, Statistics, and Psychology Paper PSY 315 Research, Statistics, and Psychology Paper Two important factors of psychology and studying it are statistics and research. This paper will explain what research is and the scientific method. This paper will also explain how research is important to psychology. When a researcher does studies on psychology they receive data from the subjects, they are studying. In any type of research there are two major types of data, they are primary data andRead MoreThe Role of Research and Statistics in the Field of Psychology1358 Words Ã |Ã 6 PagesThe Role of Research and Statistics in the Field of Psychology Abstract Research and statistics are essential elements within the field of Psychology. Through the evolution of technology, the task of conducting adequate research and statistics methods have become abundant in methodology. Because of such, research collection and experimentation approaches of researchers and Psychologists, greatly vary in specificity. However, one method reigns true and consistent, and that is the ScientificRead MoreThe Role of Research and Statistics in the Field of Psychology1359 Words Ã |Ã 6 Pagesfor B. F. Skinners radical or operant behaviorism which has had a large impact on educational systems. Watson was one of the influential psychologists of the twentieth century. His material is still used in most psychology and educational psychology texts. Watson helped with defining the study of behavior anticipated Skinners emphasis on operant conditioning and the importance of learning and environmental influences in human development. WatsonÃ¢â¬â¢s criticized of Sigmund FreudRead MoreStatistics and Psychology1051 Words Ã |Ã 5 PagesStatistics and Psychology Paper There are numerous applications of statistical reasoning and research methods in the field of psychology. From simple aspects of reading and interpreting psychology articles, to completing personal research, statistics is a necessary concept to understand. The scientific method is essential to research, and many of the concepts cross the lines into statistics. It is also imperative for us to compare and contrast the characteristics of primary and secondary dataRead MoreDescriptive and Inferential Statistics1122 Words Ã |Ã 5 PagesRunning head: DESCRIPTIVE AND INFERENTIAL STATISTICS 1 Descriptive and Inferential Statistics DESCRIPTIVE AND INFERENTIAL STATISTICS 2 Descriptive and Inferential Statistics Descriptive and inferential statistics are incredibly similar forms of research testing within psychology. Each seeks to analyze, describe, and possibly predict a populationÃ¢â¬â¢s behavior. As with psychology itself, statistical analysis within psychology began as a philosophy (Goodwin, 2008). This philosophy quicklyRead MoreEssay about Examination of Clinical Psychology1197 Words Ã |Ã 5 PagesRunning head: EXAMINATION OF CLINICAL PSYCHOLOGY Examination of Clinical Psychology University of Phoenix PST/480 Karen Wilson Nov 14, 2011 Examination of Clinical Psychology Clinical psychology is a very important as well as popular part of the field of psychology that is used very often. To begin, a definition of clinical psychology will be included. According to APA (2009) Ã¢â¬Å"Clinical psychology attempts to use the principles of psychology to better understand, predict, andRead MoreDescriptive and Inferential Statistics955 Words Ã |Ã 4 PagesDescriptive and Inferential Statistics Statistical methods in psychology have two main branches, which are descriptive and inferential. They each play a major part in the data that is collected for research and other studies. This paper will show the functions of statistics, how descriptive and inferential statistics are defined and the relationship between the two. Statistics is a necessary tool in psychology. It provides data for research studies as well as providing background information andRead MoreI/O Psychology Paper788 Words Ã |Ã 4 PagesIndustrial/Organizational Psychology Pamela Groves PSY/435 January 7, 2012 Frank Del Grosso Jr. Industrial/Organizational Psychology The paper will examine the evolution of the field of industrial/organizational psychology, and how industrial/organizational psychology is different from other disciplines in psychology. Industrial/organization psychology can be used in organizations and it focuses on the employees performance and how to make it better. The report will include the role of research and statisticsRead MoreStatistical Research in Psychology999 Words Ã |Ã 4 PagesStatistical Research in Psychology Tiffany Fisher GEN 315 Abstract Many students, including myself, are unaware how important statistics can be to the research process in Psychology. In this report, I will discuss the method used to perform researches as well as the forms of data used through statistic in Psychology. This will include the advantages and disadvantages of each form used. Introduction Many studying Psychology might be shocked that statistics is a requirement. It is vital to
Wednesday, May 13, 2020
All Quiet on the Western Front, written by Erich Maria Remarque, is a thought provoking tale about war, and the soldiers who fight these wars. The main character is an 18 year old boy named Paul BÃ ¤umer. BÃ ¤umer, growing up in Germany, decides to enlist in the army alongside his classmates after persuasion from his teacher. His story begins at the front lines of World War One. After two weeks on the front, PaulÃ¢â¬â¢s company receives a reprieve from fighting. 80 of the original 150 men in the company (Second Company) return. During his time off, BÃ ¤umer begins to reflect upon the circumstances that brought him there, his brutal time in training, and the death of one of his close friends. Over the course of this time of reflection, reinforcements arrive, and BÃ ¤umerÃ¢â¬â¢s company is redeployed into the front. PaulÃ¢â¬â¢s unit is forced to go on a wire-laying mission. They are bombed, and lose many recruits on their return to camp. When they return, they learn that Paul and his classmatesÃ¢â¬â¢ former drill sergeant, Himmelstoss, has come to join them in the fight. As he goes to order his former pupils, two of PaulÃ¢â¬â¢s accomplices, Tjaden and Kropp, insult him. They go to military court and are sentenced to two days of jail time, in the campÃ¢â¬â¢s makeshift jail. The group, after this, is sent back to the front two days early along with the rest of the company. They fight for days. Paul laments about the loss of his and his fellow soldiersÃ¢â¬â¢ youth, stating Ã¢â¬ËI believe we are lost.Ã¢â¬â¢ Finally, SecondShow MoreRelatedAll Quiet On The Western Front By Erich Maria Remarque1482 Words Ã |Ã 6 PagesThe novel All Quiet on the Western Front by Erich Maria Remarque is a tale about a group of young gentlemen in Germany who decide to join the army, and fight in World War I for their country. The boys become interested in fighting for their country after their schoolmaster informs them about the importance of this war. With much excitement, the young men have high expectations of what they want the war to be like. Throughout the course of the novel, the attitudes and opinions of the boys change as
Wednesday, May 6, 2020
Critically illustrate the importance, and societal context of risk management within the adventure leisure industry In recent decades the emphasis on risks and risk management within the adventure leisure industry has been has been escalating and is now greater than ever. This emphasis is due to the introduction of more stringent legislation from the associated governing bodies, threatening more severe consequences if businesses do not practice within the regulated guidelines.The objective of this essay is to analyse risks within adventure activities and to determine the importance of the management of risk within this field of outdoor leisure. We will write a custom essay sample on Importance of Risk Management in the Adventure Leisure Industry or any similar topic only for you Order Now This will be achieved by researching past occurrences in the leisure industry that have resulted in accident or death, which could have been avoided had a thorough risk assessment been constructed. In addition, by exploring the motivation behind participating in such activities, this essay will uncover the degree to which risk is actually required in order for an adventure activity to occur.As written by (Barton 2007:2) Ã¢â¬Å"We are exposed to risk from the moment of our conception to our deathÃ¢â¬ . If this is the case, then undoubtedly there must be forces set into place in order to manage and assess these risks that we are subjected to in day to day life. If a risk is able to be assessed, the severity of it is able to be calculated. Consequently, the hazard that resulting from that risk is able to be determined and prevented. When planning a leisure activity, it is imperative that the organising party carries out an incredibly thorough and informative risk assessment.Hazards in adventure activities include falls from height, drowning, falling objects, lightning strikes, equipment failure, assault, cold injury, and many more (Barton 2007:12). The reason why a complete and logical risk assessment is necessary is so that leading personnel are able to provide proof that everything in their power has been done in order to prevent the activity resulting in any hazards or injuries to those participating.This will not only supply the organising body with a sense of comfort that the activity they are planning and instigating is safe so as to protect them from any potential legal involvement, but also the availability of a risk assessment is likely to be an appealing factor to prospective partakersÃ¢â¬Ë. Risks are iden tified by reviewing historical information and industry standards; interviewing subject matter experts; conducting brainstorming sessions with the organising team, vendors, and key stakeholders; and some times through simulation and scenario forecasting (Silvers 2004:52).Wilks and Davis (cited in Swarbrooke, 2003) explain how all discovered risks are able to be rated in order to decide the way in which they should be tackled. This can be done by comparing the predicted frequency of a hazard, by its severity. Frequent incidents with slight consequences can, in most situations, be considered an entirely tolerable risk, we might even say a trivial risk (Barton 2007:12). By rating a risk, it can be differentiated between a risk that has great potential to cause injury of death, and a risk that can easily be tackled and therefore will barely be influential in the construction of an activity.In March of 1993 four teenagers were killed in a canoeing accident in Lyme Regis whilst on a school trip. The deaths of the young students was widely put down to lack of supervision and negligence which consists in Ã¢â¬Å"the duty of care and consequent injuryÃ¢â¬ (Scott 1993:45). When carrying out such potentially dangerous activities Ã¢â¬Å"One cannot overemphasize the importance of supervisionÃ¢â¬ (Hronek et al 2002:255). The evidence that supported the Llyme Bay legal battle that followed was that Ã¢â¬Ëthe coas tguard owed the kayakers a duty of care and that they had conducted the search and rescue operation negligentlyÃ¢â¬â¢ (Fulbrook 2005:27-28). Being careful and prepared are not only sensible attributes for activity co-ordination, it is ever more important for the organising personnel. This is progressively more significant as the management of risk is increasingly regulated into legislation and policy (Silvers 2004:170). The law is becoming much more focused upon the adventure leisure industry after such events as Lyme Bay illustrated above. Bradford (2000) explains that during the early 1990Ã¢â¬Ës, organisers of outdoor adventure activities were able to volunteer to abide by codes of practice set up by a variety of independent organisations.A company may have wished to have done so in order to improve their business. By stating that they were operating within an organisations health and safety regulations, they would have been able to project a sense of reassurance across to their customers. Following the tragedy in March 1993, the attitude of many changed dramatically and there was a wide spread belief that more needed to be done to encourage safer organisations. This would help to prevent any further disasters and deaths. The first development of more enforced regulations being placed into practice was in 1993.The English Tourist Board brought together a group representing most of the voluntary approval bodies and other interested parties, who issued a code of practice for outdoor adventure leisure activities (Bradford 2000). Followed by the Activity Centres (Young Persons safety) Act 1995. The introduction of more intense and purposeful legislation has consequently placed evermore pressure upon the organisers of such activities. This has lead to leisure managers having to direct far more attention to the health and safety of those participating in the activities they are providing.As well as an activity organizing company wishing to protect their customers to the greatest extent for fear of the legal confrontation that may follow if accused of irresponsible and neglectful practice, there are other reasons why an organizing body may wish to carry out a thorough risk assessment. If an accident was to occur which involved a member of staff, the employer risks losing money through the provision of sick pay, as well as losing an employee for an undetermined period of time. Pro-active management helps to eliminate such an occurrence arising.In addition, the execution of the introduction of control measures helps to define areas of responsibility and communicates a standard for performance. Despite the owner of an organization having the most recognized power concerning any health and safety issues, authority is able to be un-officially segregated throughout the businesses personal hierarchy. This is determined by the position of power an individual is in within the organization: Manager, assistant manager, supervisor, and so on. The benefit of dividing up job roles and esponsibility in such a way is that every position of employment will experience a sense of responsibility; each to a different degree, yet still the sensation of business involvement and therefo re the motivation to excel in their field will be present. Pro-active management strategies can be the most effective strategies because they are implemented according to the planning of the organization, rather than because of a need to respond to outside pressure and expectations from the public or a governing body Smith (2005:82). Essentially this is the detection and managing of a problematic issue, before it has the opportunity to present itself within the business. Risk assessment therefore plays an intricate part of this process. Successful pro-active management within the organization will help to ensure that the customers along with the members of staff are constantly and consistently satisfied and comfortable. It is evident that the success of an activity regarding its safety and reliance is significantly related to the experience and awareness of the activities leader.Experienced leaders develop a sixth sense of when the odds are beginning to stack up against them and they will automatically see an activity in the wider context, Barton (2007:89). It is therefore imperative that that a leader of any nature of leisure activity is able to predict potential future hazards and subsequently learn from their previous mistakes. According to Barton (2007:89), leader of activities that are not so experienced are less likely to see the signals of an approaching risk, and tend to view minor set-backs as isolated incidents, rather than as bricks in a growing wall. OrganisersÃ¢â¬â¢ must realise that these seemingly unimportant hindrances will gather pace and build up to a much larger scale problematic occurrence. Despite the increasing demand for safer and risk free activities, a balance must be established in order to keep within legislation created by the governing bodies, whilst still creating the same sense of adventure and possible danger that has lead to the success of an adventure activity. If every risk in life was assessed and accounted for, and every hazard was liminated, the world would be an incredibly safe, organised, and trouble free place. However, risks cause excitement and adrenalin within oneÃ¢â¬â¢s life. Without risk, there is no fear of risk, in which case there are no opportunities presented for one to take risks. As explained by Barton (2007:2) If we bring up children to believe that physical, emotional or intellectual risks are to be avoided, then we can hardly be surprised if the future does not bring great people; p oets, artists, play writes, successors to Captain Cook, to Darwin, and to Shakespeare.Without some form of risk, engineers could never have designed the great bridges that span the widest rivers, homes would still be heated by fireplaces or parlour stoves, electric power utilities would not exist, polio would still be maiming children, no airplanes would fly, and space travel would just be a dream (Aven 2003:2) The word Ã¢â¬ËAdventureÃ¢â¬â¢ implies that there is an element of risk involved in the activity that is to be undertaken. The reason why this is a positive attribute to the organising body is that many leisure seekers are in search of a sense of adventure, risk and an adrenaline rush. Despite the general consensus that every risk should be accounted for and every attempt should be made to ensure no hazards present themselves, without the lingering sensation in the very back of a participant mind that something may go wrong; a rope may break, a parachute may not open, the Ã¢â¬ËAdventureÃ¢â¬â¢ is almost completely removed from the Ã¢â¬ËLeisure ActivityÃ¢â¬â¢.To conclude, when regarding the adventure leisure industry, the concept of risk management and assessment are fundamental aspects that must be constantly considered when running a business that provides such activities. The laws that have been introduced throughout recent years have placed increasing pressure on organizations to concentrate on the health and safety of their patrons to a much greater degree. Failure to do so, as has been seen i n the past throughout such incidents as Lyme Bay, may well result in powerful legal consequences or even closure of their establishment.There is no doubt that risk and uncertainty are important concepts to address for supporting decision-making in many situations. The challenge is to know how to describe, measure, and communicate risk and uncertainty (Aven 2003:4). However, the popularity that adventure leisure activities hold derives from the exact concept of risk itself. Participants of such activities choose to take part in order to; gain a sense of personal accomplishment, face their fears, experience a surge of adrenalin, and ultimately test themselves to their physical and mental boundaries.A balance must be established within the process of managing risk. If this balance can be successfully determined, than the adventure leisure industry will be able to provide the same level of audacious activity, whilst staying within all governing guidelinesÃ¢â¬â¢, and providing the highest degree of safety for all those that they accommodate for. How to cite Importance of Risk Management in the Adventure Leisure Industry, Papers
Monday, May 4, 2020
Question: Discuss about thePersonal Health Profile. Answer: Introduction A personal health profile is essentially a simple survey that reveals a snapshot of an individuals current health status as well as risk for certain diseases and conditions. It is fundamental for people to know their health needs and risks since it plays a major role as far as long-term health and wellness are concerned. Completing a health profile is critical since it is an important tool to assist one in pointing out health risks early enough so that measures can be taken before they cause serious problems. A personal health profile asks about an individuals lifestyle habits such as nutrition, physical activity, drug use as well as relationships (NSW Kids and Families, NSW Health, 2015). Focusing on nutrition as far as my personal health profile is concerned, my diet does not contain a lot of vegetables although I prefer taking a lot of fruits. A few times a week I order for fast food like sushi and hungry jacks. My dinners usually contain meat, chicken, tacos, pastas, soda and ba ked dinners. My diet has to have meat since I have anemia. In regards to physical activity, I walk for at least ten kilometers three times a week. Physically I am thin build and during my free time I go for horse riding. As far as relationships are concerned, I live with my father, mother, and little sister. I have a small but wonderful circle of close friends and I always enjoy spending my time with them. When it comes to drug use, I take alcohol during the weekends. I take nasal sprays and zertec since I have allergies. In case I have a headache, I usually take panadol. The society tends to focus on treatment of a disease or condition rather than preventive measures (Levinthal, 2014). People wait until they are sick for them to go to the hospital or to seek medical assistance. Very few people focus on strategies aimed at maintaining better health so as to reduce their risk of suffering from certain conditions which can be prevented early (Meunier, 2014). One aspect of my lifestyle that influences my health is nutrition. As far as my food choices are concerned, I like eating fruits, fast foods like sushi and hungry jacks. My dinners usually contain meat, chicken, tacos, pasta, soda and baked dinners. My diet has a few vegetables although I do not prefer them. In the morning I usually alternate between coffee and tea. Dinner is usually my heaviest meal of the day. When I am stressed, I tend to eat a lot of food, especially fast foods like sushi and soft drinks for example sprite soda. There are various factors that dictate my food choices. One of them is social factors. The society through the use of media has popularized fast food companies. Since they deliver to peoples door steps it makes it easier for people to access their product (Harvard Medical School Health Topics A-Z, 2013). Whenever I am alone I always make a call to certain fast food companies and within minutes they bring my sushi. If this service was not available I would be forced to go to the kitchen and prepare myself a meal. Economic factors also determine my choice of food. Individuals buy what they can afford which is dictated by the economy (Inkster, 2014). Currently, my mother and father are employed in one of the best companies in the country. As such every day they buy meat although it is relatively expensive since they can afford it. In any given day it is very hard to find my mother making a recipe that does not have meat in it. Educational determinants also play a huge role. Once individuals are informed of the potential risks or benefits of choosing a certain diet then it is mostly likely they will adapt it or discard it if it is risky to their health (Gentilcore, 2016). Personally, I never liked fruits but my mother made it a habit of ensuring that I take a fruit after taking all my meals of the day. She later explained to be the benefits of taking fruits and since then, I always take fruits after every meal. Another determinant of choice of diet is medical conditions. If an individual has been diagnosed with a certain condition or disease, then the medical expert advises the patient to avoid or favor a specific kind of diet as a means of treating the disease or problem (Harvard Medical School Commentaries on Health, 2014). Personally, I have anemia so I tend to favor a diet with a lot of meat in it. My diet contains a lot of meat. Eating meat in excess is interfering with my health and fitness goals. According to studies, too much meat fuels cancer (Healey, 2016). I exercise but my weight never goes down as a result of too much meat. I also feel very tired most of the time. As far as drug use is concerned, I take alcohol, medication as well as beverages. There are several reasons as to why I use these drugs. When it comes to medication, I have allergies so the doctor prescribed specific medications such as zertec and nasal sprays. These two drugs are primarily used to relieve the symptoms of allergies (Meunier, 2014). Allergies are very distracting to me since they produce symptoms such as constant sneezing running nose and redness of eyes. I also take panadol tablets whenever I experience headaches. Panadol is a drug aimed at relieving pain. It provides fast, effective temporarily relief of aches and pains such as headaches, sore throat, migraines as well as dental pain. My doctor and my parent are my greatest influence since they have encouraged me to take the medications every time I experience an allergic reaction. These drugs have helped me to cope with my allergies. During the weekends I take alcohol. It is only on the weekend that we meet up with all my friends to spend time together share what has been happening in our lives as we watch different football leagues playing. Since the setting is in a club, we are forced to buy alcohol so as to remain on the premises. Also, drink alcohol because it makes me lively and confident therefore I am able to enjoy myself and have a good time. Without it, I am usually dull since naturally, I am a shy person. My friends influence me the most since when I ask for a soda instead of alcohol, the laugh at me and patronize me hence I am left with no choice but to order an alcoholic drink since they deem it as a drink taken by mature adults. As a result of taking too much alcohol, my judgment is impaired and I tend to make unwise decisions (Acred, 2014). I also experience a hangover the next day. As far as beverages are concerned, I take tea or coffee in the morning. These two are stimulants and they help to awaken the mind and keep me alert for the day ahead (Muth, 2015). I also take soft drinks especially after taking my lunch since it quenches my thirst. As far as influences are concerned my mother influences me and my family mainly because, since I was young she either tea or coffee every morning. The consequences of taking tea or coffee for many years are that you tend to be addicted. Whenever I fail to take either of the two beverages in the morning I always feel dull. All in all, financial status, education and behavior are some of the health determinants that influence a persons health (Inkster, 2014). As far financial status is concerned, individuals who have money can be able to afford a balanced diet hence making it easier to for them to maintain a good health (Taylor, 2015). In regards to education, an educated person has access to information about nutrition and factors that contribute to various diseases hence he or she is more likely to take measures to improve his or her health. Finally, a persons behavior dictate his or her health status for instance smoking, excessive alcohol consumption as well as insufficient physical activity is very risk and can cause about lifestyle diseases (Levinthal, 2014). I have developed an action plan with specific goals to ensure that I retain the good behavior and do away with the bad ones as far as my health is concerned. First, I will increase the number of days that I engage in physical activity to five days per week (Martinez Robinson, 2012). Secondly, I will reduce the amount of meat I consume and increase my cabbage intake. Thirdly, I will diversify when it comes to the types of fruits I eat so as to maintain this trend of eating fruits (Meunier, 2014). Finally, I will reduce my alcohol intake to a maximum of two bottles per week. On a personal level, the process has taught me that my health is dictated by the decisions that I make. When everybody engages in this process then we will have schools and societies that are healthy. I have learned that our health is highly influenced by factors surrounding us and hence the need to examine issues in our society that we live in. References Gentilcore, D. (2016).Food and health in early modern Europe: Diet, medicine and society, 1450-1800. Harvard Medical School Commentaries on Health. (2014). Harvard Medical School Health Topics A-Z. (2013). In Healey, J. (2016).Cancer prevention. In Acred, C. (2014).Alcohol and health. Inkster, K. (2014).Vegan vitality: Your complete guide to an active, healthy, plant-based lifestyle. Levinthal, C. F. (2014).Drugs, behavior, and modern society. Martinez, M. P., Robinson, H. (2012).Obesity and weight management: Challenges, practices and health implications. New York: Nova Science Publishers, Inc. Meunier, Y. A. (2014).Medicine of the future: Risk assessment, elimination or mitigation and action plans for 28 diseases and medical conditions. Muth, N. D. (2015).Sports nutrition for health professionals. NSW Kids and Families, NSW Health. (2015).My personal health record. Taylor, S. E. (2015).Health psychology.
Saturday, March 28, 2020
The noun and the verb are the most important categories of speech. The verb is the most important. These categories are the nucleus of the sentence, which is composed of the subject and the predicate. The verb lexeme needs determination too. The verb must express time, person and other distinctions. Besides these distinctions, the verb must express such semantic functions as terminativity/boundness and non-terminativity. Process is expressed by the verb. It has an end point: the process of writing end when some product is created. Bounded words have a final aim: they express process limited in time. Non-bounded processes have no end-point (e. g. John is walking in the park Ã¢â¬â non-bounded / to the park Ã¢â¬â bounded (the end is park). Bounded processes are purposive Ã¢â¬â they have an aim. Unbounded processes have no aim. Verbs are divided into finite and non-finite forms. Finite forms are determined processes. Non-finite forms are also determined forms (e. We will write a custom essay sample on The Verb and Its Categories or any similar topic specifically for you Do Not WasteYour Time HIRE WRITER Only 13.90 / page g. Walk (v) Ã¢â¬â must be grammatically processed). Processes canÃ¢â¬â¢t be imagined without persons. The grammatical category of person speaks of the role that each participant plays in the process. When the speaker has himself in mind, we have the 1st person (e. g. IÃ¢â¬â¢m walking now). When the speaker speaks to addressee, we have the 2nd person (e. g. You are to work harder). When the speaker refers neither to himself, nor to the addressee, we have the 3rd person. The grammatical category of person refers to the role of each participant in the act of communication. The category of person in synthetic language is lexicalised and grammaticalised (expressed by appropriate pronouns and inflections of the verb). In languages where person is fully grammaticalised the use of lexicalised persons is grammatically redundant (but not communicatively). In languages where person is not grammaticalised, person distinctions are expressed by appropriate personal pronouns. In English person distinctions are not grammaticalised (only the 1st person singular). English expresses words analytically. The grammatical category of number is concerned with the number of participants carrying out the process (e. g. John, Marry, Peter are walking in the garden). Only the inflection s is the marker of number in English. Number and person are blended (combined into one inflection). We must turn to the pronouns and nouns. The analysis of the categories of person and number shows that English has practically lost its verbal inflections and heavily relies on pronouns and nouns. The grammatical category of tense stands for a verb form sed to express a tune relation and it varies in different languages. Time is unlimited duration in which things are considered as happening in the past, present or future and it is independent of language and it stands for a concept which all mankind is familiar with. Time can be expressed lexically and grammatically (e. g. John is (grammatically) working in his study now (lexically)). English has three sets of temporal adjuncts which refer to: 1)the present (n ow, today, this morning, this century); 2)the past (yesterday, last week, last year); 3)the future (tomorrow, next minute). The Verb and Its Categories free essay sample The noun and the verb are the most important categories of speech. The verb is the most important. These categories are the nucleus of the sentence, which is composed of the subject and the predicate. The verb lexeme needs determination too. The verb must express time, person and other distinctions. Besides these distinctions, the verb must express such semantic functions as terminativity/boundness and non-terminativity. Process is expressed by the verb. It has an end point: the process of writing end when some product is created. Bounded words have a final aim: they express process limited in time. Non-bounded processes have no end-point (e. g. John is walking in the park Ã¢â¬â non-bounded / to the park Ã¢â¬â bounded (the end is park). Bounded processes are purposive Ã¢â¬â they have an aim. Unbounded processes have no aim. Verbs are divided into finite and non-finite forms. Finite forms are determined processes. Non-finite forms are also determined forms (e. We will write a custom essay sample on The Verb and Its Categories or any similar topic specifically for you Do Not WasteYour Time HIRE WRITER Only 13.90 / page g. Walk (v) Ã¢â¬â must be grammatically processed). Processes canÃ¢â¬â¢t be imagined without persons. The grammatical category of person speaks of the role that each participant plays in the process. When the speaker has himself in mind, we have the 1st person (e. g. IÃ¢â¬â¢m walking now). When the speaker speaks to addressee, we have the 2nd person (e. g. You are to work harder). When the speaker refers neither to himself, nor to the addressee, we have the 3rd person. The grammatical category of person refers to the role of each participant in the act of communication. The category of person in synthetic language is lexicalised and grammaticalised (expressed by appropriate pronouns and inflections of the verb). In languages where person is fully grammaticalised the use of lexicalised persons is grammatically redundant (but not communicatively). In languages where person is not grammaticalised, person distinctions are expressed by appropriate personal pronouns. In English person distinctions are not grammaticalised (only the 1st person singular). English expresses words analytically. The grammatical category of number is concerned with the number of participants carrying out the process (e. g. John, Marry, Peter are walking in the garden). Only the inflection s is the marker of number in English. Number and person are blended (combined into one inflection). We must turn to the pronouns and nouns. The analysis of the categories of person and number shows that English has practically lost its verbal inflections and heavily relies on pronouns and nouns. The grammatical category of tense stands for a verb form sed to express a tune relation and it varies in different languages. Time is unlimited duration in which things are considered as happening in the past, present or future and it is independent of language and it stands for a concept which all mankind is familiar with. Time can be expressed lexically and grammatically (e. g. John is (grammatically) working in his study now (lexically)). English has three sets of temporal adjuncts which refer to: 1)the present (n ow, today, this morning, this century); 2)the past (yesterday, last week, last year); 3)the future (tomorrow, next minute).
Saturday, March 7, 2020
How It Feels to Be Colored Me, by Zora Neale Hurston Zora Neal Hurston was an author that was widely acclaimed. A genius of the South, novelist, folklorist, anthropologist- those are the words that Alice Walker had inscribed on the tombstone of Zora Neale Hurston. In this personalÃ essay (first published in The World Tomorrow, May 1928), the acclaimed author of Their Eyes Were Watching God explores her own sense of identity through a series of memorable examples and striking metaphors. AsÃ Sharon L. Jones has observed, Hurstons essay challenges the reader to consider race and ethnicity as fluid, evolving, and dynamic rather than static and unchanging -Critical Companion to Zora Neale Hurston, 2009 How It Feels to Be Colored Me by Zora Neale Hurston 1 I am colored but I offer nothing in the way of extenuating circumstances except the fact that I am the only Negro in the United States whose grandfather on the mothers side was not an Indian chief. 2 I remember the very day that I became colored. Up to my thirteenth year I lived in the little Negro town of Eatonville, Florida. It is exclusively a colored town. The only white people I knew passed through the town going to or coming from Orlando. The native whites rode dusty horses, the Northern tourists chugged down the sandy village road in automobiles. The town knew the Southerners and never stopped cane chewing when they passed. But the Northerners were something else again. They were peered at cautiously from behind curtains by the timid. The more venturesome would come out on the porch to watch them go past and got just as much pleasure out of the tourists as the tourists got out of the village. 3 The front porch might seem a daring place for the rest of the town, but it was a gallery seat for me. My favorite place was atop the gatepost. Proscenium box for a born first-nighter. Not only did I enjoy the show, but I didnt mind the actors knowing that I liked it. I usually spoke to them in passing. Id wave at them and when they returned my salute, I would say something like this: Howdy-do-well-I-thank-you-where-you-goin? Usually, automobile or the horse paused at this, and after a queer exchange of compliments, I would probably go a piece of the way with them, as we say in farthest Florida. If one of my family happened to come to the front in time to see me, of course, negotiations would be rudely broken off. But even so, it is clear that I was the first welcome-to-our-state Floridian, and I hope the Miami Chamber of Commerce will please take notice. 4 During this period, white people differed from colored to me only in that they rode through town and never lived there. They liked to hear me speak pieces and sing and wanted to see me dance the parse-me-la, and gave me generously of their small silver for doing these things, which seemed strange to me for I wanted to do them so much that I needed bribing to stop, only they didnt know it. The colored people gave no dimes. They deplored any joyful tendencies in me, but I was their Zora nevertheless. I belonged to them, to the nearby hotels, to the county- everybodys Zora. 5 But changes came in the family when I was thirteen, and I was sent to school in Jacksonville. I left Eatonville, the town of the oleanders, a Zora. When I disembarked from the riverboat at Jacksonville, she was no more. It seemed that I had suffered a sea change. I was not Zora of Orange County anymore, I was now a little colored girl. I found it out in certain ways. In my heart as well as in the mirror, I became a fast brown- warranted not to rub nor run. 6 But I am not tragically colored. There is no great sorrow dammed up in my soul, nor lurking behind my eyes. I do not mind at all. I do not belong to the sobbing school of Negrohood who hold that nature somehow has given them a lowdown dirty deal and whose feelings are all but about it. Even in the helter-skelter skirmish that is my life, I have seen that the world is to the strong regardless of a little pigmentation more of less. No, I do not weep at the world- I am too busy sharpening my oyster knife. 7 Someone is always at my elbow reminding me that I am the granddaughter of slaves. It fails to register depression with me. Slavery is sixty years in the past. The operation was successful and the patient is doing well, thank you. The terrible struggle that made me an American out of a potential slave said On the line! The Reconstruction said Get set! and the generation before said Go! I am off to a flying start and I must not halt in the stretch to look behind and weep. Slavery is the price I paid for civilization, and the choice was not with me. It is a bully adventure and worth all that I have paid through my ancestors for it. No one on earth ever had a greater chance for glory. The world to be won and nothing to be lost. It is thrilling to think- to know that for any act of mine, I shall get twice as much praise or twice as much blame. It is quite exciting to hold the center of the national stage, with the spectators not knowing whether to laugh or to weep. 8 The position of my white neighbor is much more difficult. No brown specter pulls up a chair beside me when I sit down to eat. No dark ghost thrusts its leg against mine in bed. The game of keeping what one has is never so exciting as the game of getting. 9 I do not always feel colored. Even now I often achieve the unconscious Zora of Eatonville before the Hegira. I feel most colored when I am thrown against a sharp white background. 10 For instance at Barnard. Beside the waters of the Hudson I feel my race. Among the thousand white persons, I am a dark rock surged upon, and overswept, but through it all, I remain myself. When covered by the waters, I am; and the ebb but reveals me again. 11 Sometimes it is the other way around. A white person is set down in our midst, but the contrast is just as sharp for me. For instance, when I sit in the drafty basement that is The New World Cabaret with a white person, my color comes. We enter chatting about any little nothing that we have in common and are seated by the jazz waiters. In the abrupt way that jazz orchestras have, this one plunges into a number. It loses no time in circumlocutions, but gets right down to business. It constricts the thorax and splits the heart with its tempo and narcotic harmonies. This orchestra grows rambunctious, rears on its hind legs and attacks the tonal veil with primitive fury, rending it, clawing it until it breaks through to the jungle beyond. I follow those heathen- follow them exultingly. I dance wildly inside myself; I yell within, I whoop; I shake my assegai above my head, I hurl it true to the mark yeeeeooww! I am in the jungle and living in the jungle way. My face is painted red and yellow and my body is painted blue. My pulse is throbbing like a war drum. I want to slaughter something- give pain, give death to what, I do not know. But the piece ends. The men of the orchestra wipe their lips and rest their fingers. I creep back slowly to the veneer we call civilization with the last tone and find the white friend sitting motionless in his seat, smoking calmly. 12 Good music they have here, he remarks, drumming the table with his fingertips. 13 Music. The great blobs of purple and red emotion have not touched him. He has only heard what I felt. He is far away and I see him but dimly across the ocean and the continent that have fallen between us. He is so pale with his whiteness then and I am so colored. 14 At certain times I have no race, I am me. When I set my hat at a certain angle and saunter down Seventh Avenue, Harlem City, feeling as snooty as the lions in front of the Forty-Second Street Library, for instance. So far as my feelings are concerned, Peggy Hopkins Joyce on the Boule Mich with her gorgeous raiment, stately carriage, knees knocking together in a most aristocratic manner, has nothing on me. The cosmic Zora emerges. I belong to no race nor time. I am the eternal feminine with its string of beads. 15 I have no separate feeling about being an American citizen and colored. I am merely a fragment of the Great Soul that surges within the boundaries. My country, right or wrong. 16 Sometimes, I feel discriminated against, but it does not make me angry. It merely astonishes me. How can any deny themselves the pleasure of my company? Its beyond me. 17 But in the main, I feel like a brown bag of miscellany propped against a wall. Against a wall in company with other bags, white, red and yellow. Pour out the contents, and there is discovered a jumble of small things priceless and worthless. A first-water diamond, an empty spool, bits of broken glass, lengths of string, a key to a door long since crumbled away, a rusty knife-blade, old shoes saved for a road that never was and never will be, a nail bent under the weight of things too heavy for any nail, a dried flower or two still a little fragrant. In your hand is the brown bag. On the ground before you is the jumble it held- so much like the jumble in the bags, could they be emptied, that all might be dumped in a single heap and the bags refilled without altering the content of any greatly. A bit of colored glass more or less would not matter. Perhaps that is how the Great Stuffer of Bags filled them in the first place- who knows?
Wednesday, February 19, 2020
Law course ( ) - Case Study Example This puts Renault in a safe albeit embarrassing position. Nonetheless, Lyon's decision to sue Sherman for breach of contract may have some merit. On his part, Sherman could use the argument that he is not under any legal obligation to sell his business only to Lyon. He could strengthen his case if he has included the clause that the counteroffer is subject to cancellation by the present owner of Adgraphics without assigning any reason whatsoever. In this case the role of Robert Renault of V.R. Brokers is crucial in bringing about an amicable, out-of-court settlement. A court proceeding could prove to be messy for Sherman and question his personal integrity. The case is tilted in favor of Lane, manufacturer of Zeus bran butane. It is just as good as any open-and-shut case. The tragic end of the victim, Stephen Pavlik's life is the result of his own desire to "get high" by inhaling the dangerous substance which the manufacturer has already cautioned against in bold capitals on the fuel's can. The victim was 20 years of age when the accident occurred. As such, he was quite mature and fully aware of the dangerous consequences of his debilitating addiction.
Tuesday, February 4, 2020
Comparative analysis on early contacts involving indigenous peoples and European explorers - Essay Example Columbus and Cook share certain traits. Both of them were great travelers and made use of wonderful traveling techniques, yet the fundamental reasons of their travel were totally different from each other. It is also noteworthy that the two had made their journeys at different points in time, and the success or failure of the voyages of Cook was fundamentally influenced by the proceedings of Columbus since he had made his voyages before Cook, thus leaving the latter reduced opportunity of discovering new places. In order to thoroughly understand the underlying causes of travels of the Columbus and Cook, it is imperative that a brief insight to the history of empires is taken. In the 16th century, Habsburg Spain was the heart of first global empire and was a superpower. It had rich culture and the 17th century was a golden era for Spain. It was only after the Peace of Utrecht in 1713 that Spain became deprived of a major share of its power and lost territories in many Low Countries in cluding Italy. In the Continental politics, Spain befell into a second rate nation. Nevertheless, Spain kept hold of its empire overseas. The Genoese sailor, Christopher Columbus was in Spain in 1486, and required support from Queen Isabella and King Ferdinand which he was denied twice, but in the year 1492, Columbus finally gained their support. It was the same year when the last Moorish King of Granada was driven out by Spain. It was a big victory for Spain having achieved which, the Christians of Spanish origin began to dream of triumphing over Islam. Thus, the victory of Christianity was a primary goal of the Spanish Christians. The fundamental reason behind sending Columbus abroad was the spread of Christianity, and accordingly, the empire of Spain. Columbus notes in the letter which appears at the preface of the journal of his first voyage: Ã¢â¬ ¦Your Highnesses, as Catholic Christians . . . took thought to send me, Christopher Columbus, to the said parts of India, to see tho se princes and peoples and lands . . . and the manner which should be used to bring about their conversion to our holy faith,Ã¢â¬ ¦ (Columbus cited in Fiske). This explains why Spanish King opted to send Columbus to far off regions. However, complete understanding of the voyages can not be gained without comprehending ColumbusÃ¢â¬â¢s own interests in making the voyages. On his journey to the western hemisphere, Columbus compiled journals in which he shared his experiences. The journal of ColumbusÃ¢â¬â¢s first journey conveys his original impressions of the indigenous people of Caribbean islands. The first excerpt mentioned in the book of (Bentley and Herbert 474) essentially depicts the two main reasons of ColumbusÃ¢â¬â¢s travels, namely commerce and Christianity. These journals have been written by Columbus in an exaggerated manner in order to convince the Spanish Queen into presenting him gold and rewards. Columbus was promised great rewards and power if he succeeded in att aining the objectives of the Spanish empire. Columbus has also mentioned his personal interests in the very letter in these words: Your Highnesses commanded me that, with a sufficient fleet, I should go to the said parts of India, and for this accorded me great rewards and ennobled me so that from that time henceforth I might style myself "Don" and be high admiral of the Ocean Sea and perpetual Governor of the islands and continent which I should discover . . . and that my eldest son
Monday, January 27, 2020
Community Safety Initiatives | Evaluation INTRODUCTION Purpose of this paper is to discuss the main problems confronting those who must evaluate community safety initiatives. In order to do this, the paper first provides an overview of the problem. This is followed by an analysis of support and initiative by governments, technical difficulties, access to data, political pressure, and utilisation. COMMUNITY SAFETY EVALUATION The initial challenge facing every community safety initiative is to meet crime reduction targets whilst also implementing preventative measures to ensure long-term reductions in crime and disorder. Arguably, high quality evaluation can play a role in this as it can help better understand what works and how it works (Morton 2006). According to AG (2007), evaluation is concerned with making value-based judgments about a program. Mallock and Braithwaite (2005:4) define evaluation as Ã¢â¬Å"the systematic examination of a policy, program or project aimed at assessing its merit, value, worth, relevance or contributionÃ¢â¬ . Any evidence of the benefits and impact of initiatives will help to influence local partners in commissioning decisions. However, according to Morton (2006), some evaluators have been more able to undertake evaluations than others. As Read and Tilley (2000) claim, evaluation stage continues to be a major weakness of a community safety program. Proper evaluations of community safety initiatives are rare (Community Safety Centre 2000). According to Rhodes (2007), a range of policies and programs has been established with the aim of achieving greater community participation and involvement leading to increased community capacity. However there has been little evaluation of this approach or the specific programs. Read and Tilley (2000) also claim that there is relatively little systematic evaluation and a shortage of good evaluations. Moreover, what is available is generally weak. According to AG (2007), the reasons for the lack of evaluation of community safety programs have not been studied extensively, but social, political and financial considerations are likely to have a strong influence. Evaluation studies consume resources, and therefore are competing for the limited resources available and must be justified by the value of the information which they provide. There are also several other relevant factors including the limited knowledge and experience of evaluation theory and practice of many program managers and organisers. In addition, evaluation evidence is often seen as bad news since program objectives tend to be over-optimistic and hence are rarely fully met; a situation that evaluation might expose. LACK OF SUPPORT AND INITIATIVE According to Community Safety Centre (2000), little time and resources are available for conducting evaluation. When evaluation does occur, the size does matter. It can depend on how large the partnership is as to the resources that they have available for evaluation (Cherney and Sutton 2004). Often in small partnerships no money is put aside for evaluation. Since majority of serious evaluations are going to be expensive, this can particularly be a problem for small projects where a good evaluation may take up a relatively large proportion of the project budget. Thus, very often people will argue that this is an unnecessary cost. Furthermore, practitioners very often feel that they can themselves quiet easily tell whether or not something has been a success. Community Safety Centre (2000) concludes that recommendations that something works, by people who were involved in implementing the initiative, are often based on relatively weak evaluation evidence commonly relying on more gener al impressions that are usually not objective enough. In Australia, for example, neither central nor regional government has so far encouraged evaluators to undertake their own evaluation (Cherney and Sutton 2004). Community Safety Centre (2000) and Morton (2006) also claim that there is a lack of commitment from central government and local agencies, arguing that the problem lies in attracting and maintaining involvement of people and agencies that really are not interested in crime prevention or community safety. According to Morton (2006), evaluators have only been required to produce quarterly reports with milestones for the future and not to undertake a real reflection on a project, including writing a review on the project and analysing available data. All evaluators have to do is monitor whether money is being spent on outputs. Read and Tilley (2000) argue that there is little attention paid to how initiatives may have had their effects. There is not enough investment or requirement for evaluation. According to Varone, Jacob and De Winter (2005), policy evaluation is an underdeveloped tool of Belgian public governance. They claim that it is partitocracy, weakness of Parliament vis-Ã -vis the government, and the federalisation process that is characteristic of the recent institutional evolution of the country, that jeopardise the development of a mature evaluation culture. TECHNICAL DIFFUCULTIES Evaluators might find barriers at each of the evaluation steps, including problem formulation, design of instruments, research deign, data collection, data analysis, findings and conclusions and utilisation (Hagan 2000). In respect to problem formulation, evaluation researchers are often in a hurry to get on with the task without thoroughly grounding the evaluation in the major theoretical issues in the field. Glaser and Zeigler (1974) claim that much of what is regarded as in-house evaluations has been co opted and is little more than head counting or the production of tables for annual reports. Further problem is the absence of standardised definitions. The confusion over definitions has not only impeded communication among researchers and, more importantly, between researchers and practitioners, but also has hindered comparisons and replications of research studies. Furthermore, although evaluators would prefer control over treatment and a classic experimental design, with random assignment of cases to experimental and control groups, this seldom happens. In many instances it is very difficult to find organisations that would be willing to undergo experimentation, particularly if it involves the denial of certain treatments (control group) to some clients. The program planners and staff may resists randomisation as means of allocations treatments, arguing for assignment based on need or merit. The design may not be correctly carried out, resulting in nonequivalent experimental and control groups. The design may break down as some people refuse to participate or drop out of different treatment groups (experimental mortality). Some feel that randomised designs create focused inequality because some groups receive treatment others desire and thus can cause reactions that could be confused with treatments. Much of the bemoaning concerning the inadequacy of research design in evaluation methodology has arisen because of an over-commitment to experimental designs, and a deficient appreciation of the utility of post hoc controls by means of multivariety statistical techniques. It may be that more rapid progress can be made in the evolution of preventive programs if research designs are based on statistical rather than experimental model. One major difficulty in evaluation research is in procuring adequate control groups. In respect to data collection, one principal shortcoming of much evaluation research has been its over reliance on questionnaires as the primary means of data gathering. Program supporters will jump on methodological or procedural problems in any evaluation that comes to a negative conclusion. Hagan (2000) also lists other obstacles to evaluation, including unsound and poorly done data analysis, unethical evaluations, naive and unprepared evaluation staff, and poor relationships between evaluation and program staff. Community Safety Centre (2000) argues that, unlike experimental researchers, evaluators often have difficulty comparing their experimental groups with a control group. Although evaluators might attempt to find a similar group to compare with, it is usually impossible to apply the ideal experimental rigor of randomly allocating individuals to an experimental condition and a control condition. According to AG (2007), those responsible for commissioning or conducting evaluation studies also need to take account of the local social, cultural and political context if the evaluations are to produce evidence that is not only useful, but used. According to Morton (2006), some evaluators have stressed their incompetence, claming that they do not know how to undertake evaluation. Schuller (2004) has referred to the lack of accuracy in their predictions, partly due to a lack of post-auditing information. She further argues that evaluators apply a narrow scope that stresses well-established knowledge of local impacts, whilst underplaying wider geographical, systematic, or time factors. Evaluation research can be a complex and difficult task (Community Safety Centre 2000). Evaluators are often described by a lack of control over, and even knowledge of, wide range of factors which may or may not impact on the performance indicators. While evaluating a single crime prevention initiative may be difficult enough, evaluating a full community safety project may be many times more complicated. The intervention package often impacts beyond the target area and this impact needs to be anticipated. As an additional complication, evaluation research can itself have an impact on the outcome of an initiative. A secondary role of the audit process is to raise awareness and build support for the initiative in the affected community. ACCESS TO DATA A commonly reported problem with evaluation has been access to relevant data (Morton 2006). Morton (2006) claims that it is often hard to get good baseline data against which to evaluate a project, mainly because procedures and resources for appropriate multi-agency data collection and mapping are not in place. Often the relevant data is not recorded or collated across services and analysed together to give a complete picture of the problem. Furthermore, partnerships often lack appropriate analytical skills to use quantitative data (Morton 2006). According to Hagan (2000), if proper data for evaluation are absent and clear outcomes or criteria of organisational success are absent, then a proper evaluation cannot be undertaken. The success of the entire evaluation process hinges on the motivation of the administrator and organisation in calling for an evaluation in the first place. It should be possible to locate specific organisational objectives that are measurable. The key assumptions of the program must be stated in a form which can be tested objectively. However, this often does not happen in practice. POLITICAL PRESSURE Political pressure can present another problem for evaluators. Administrators often want to spend all the funding available on implementation as opposed to evaluation (Morton 2006). Thus, being aware of the political context of a program is a precondition for useable evaluation research (AG 2007). Evaluation research requires the active support and cooperation of the agency or program to be evaluated (Hagan 2000). However, the program administratorÃ¢â¬â¢s desire to reaffirm his or her position with favorable program evaluations may conflict with the evaluatorÃ¢â¬â¢s desire to acquire an objective appraisal of a programÃ¢â¬â¢s impact. The end result may be either a research design with low scientific credibility and tainted results, or a credible study that never receives a public hearing because the administrator does not like the results. According to Read and Tilley (2000), few evaluations are independent and evidence is used selectively. There is undue satisfaction with redu ction as an indicator that the initiative was effective without attention to alternative explanations, or to possible side-effects. They further argue that 84% of evaluations they studied were conducted by the initiative coordinator or staff, and only 9% were by an independent external evaluator. Thus, it is challenging for partnerships to persuade for funding to be put aside for evaluation. EvaluatorÃ¢â¬â¢s job is also affected by balancing the need to be strategic and pressure to produce Ã¢â¬Å"runs on the boardÃ¢â¬ by local authorities and central agencies, as well as the greater value placed on Ã¢â¬Å"projectsÃ¢â¬ compared to Ã¢â¬Å"planningÃ¢â¬ within local authorities (Cherney and Sutton 2004). According to Hagan (2000), even the best laid evaluation plans can Ã¢â¬Å"bite the dustÃ¢â¬ in the Ã¢â¬Å"high noonÃ¢â¬ of political reality. In discussing the politicisation of evaluation research, Hagan (2000) points out the incasing political nature of evaluations as they are increasingly used to decide the future of programs. According to him, part of the administratorÃ¢â¬â¢s concern about evaluation research comes from the dilemma that research creates for him. The evaluation process casts him in contradictory roles. On the one hand, he is the key person in the agency, and the success of its various operations, including evaluation, depends on his knowledge and involvement. On the other hand, evaluation carries the potentiality of discrediting an administratively sponsored program or of undermining a position the administrator has taken. MURPHYÃ¢â¬â¢S LAW Hagan (2000) applies MurphyÃ¢â¬â¢s Law to evaluation research, clearly indicated barriers that evaluator faces. In relation to evaluation design: the resources needed to complete the evaluation will exceed the original projection by a factor of two. after an evaluation has been completed and is believed to control for all relevant variables, others will be discovered and rival hypothesis will multiply geometrically the necessity of making a major decision change increases as the evaluation project nears completion. In relation to evaluation management: the probability of a breakdown in cooperation between the evaluation project and an operational agency is directly proportional to the trouble it can cause. if staying on schedule is dependent on a number of activities which may be completed before or after an allotted time interval, the total time needed will accumulate in the direction of becoming further and further behind schedule. In relation to data collection: the availability of data element is inversely proportional to the need for that element historical baseline data will be recorded in units or by criteria other than present or future records none of the available self-report formats will work as well as you expect In relation to data analysis and interpretation: in a mathematical calculation, any error that can creep in, will. It will accumulate in the direction that will do the most damage to the results of the calculation. the figure that is most obviously correct will be the source of error if an analysis matrix requires Ã¢â¬Å"nÃ¢â¬ data elements to make the analysis easy and logical, there will always be Ã¢â¬Å"n-1Ã¢â¬ available. When tabulating data, the line totals and the column totals should up to the grand total; they wonÃ¢â¬â¢t In relation to presentation of evaluation findings: the more extensive and thorough the evaluation the less likely the findings will be used by decision makers. UTILISATION Evaluator is often approaching his or her job knowing that evaluation results are often not appropriately utilised. This might significantly impact his or her performance. Hagan (2000) claims that evaluations have not been effectively utilised, and that much of this waste is due to passive bias and censorship within the field itself, which prevent the publication of weaker, less scientific findings, and to misplace client loyalty. Cherney and Sutton (2004) argue that there has been a lack of status and authority within the overall structure of local government to facilitate change in polices and practices. Furthermore, there are agencies and units both within local authorities and externally who are unwilling to be held accountable for community safety outcomes. According to Schuller (2004), there has been inadequate organisation, scheduling and institutional integration into the overall decision-making process, with impact assessment often undertaken towards the end. It has also bee n suggested that the most pertinent issue may be, not to predict accurately, but to define appropriate goals, and then set up the organisation that can effectively adapt and audit the project to achieve goals. CONCLUSION The paper has discussed the main problems confronting those who must evaluate community safety initiatives, looking at the issues of support and initiative, technical difficulties, access to data, political pressure, and low utilisation. Proper evaluations of community safety initiatives are rare. Little time and resources is available for conducting evaluation and there is a lack of commitment from government and local agencies. Barriers have been experienced throughout the evaluation process, including problem formulation, design of instruments, research deign, data collection, data analysis, findings and conclusions and utilisation. Further barriers have been presented by lack of focus on the local social, cultural and political context. Some evaluators have even stressed their incompetence, claming that they do not know how to undertake evaluation. Relevant data is often not recorded or collated to give a complete picture of the problem. Political pressure also presents a signifi cant problem as administrators find themselves in contradictory roles. Furthermore, they often want to spend all the funding available on implementation as opposed to evaluation. Finally, evaluation results have not been effectively utilised, which can have a significant negative impact on evaluators. BIBLIOGRAPHY Australian Government Attorney Generals Department (AG). (2007). Ã¢â¬Å"Conceptual Foundations of Evaluation ModelsÃ¢â¬ . Cherney, A and Sutton, A. (2004). Aussie Experience: local government community safety officers and capacity buildingÃ¢â¬ . Community Safety Journal, Vol.3, Iss.3, pg.31. Community Safety Centre (2000). Ã¢â¬Å"Research and EvaluationÃ¢â¬ . Community Safety research and Evaluation BulletinÃ¢â¬ . No.1. Glaser, D. and Zeigler, M.S. (1974). Ã¢â¬Å"The Use of the Death Penalty v. the Outrage at MurderÃ¢â¬ . Crime and Delinquency, pp.333-338. Hagan, F.E. (2000). Ã¢â¬Å"Research Methods in Criminal Justice and Criminology (eds)Ã¢â¬ . Allyn and Bacon. Mallock, N.A. and Braithwaite, J. (2005). Ã¢â¬Å"Evaluation of the Safety Improvement Program in New South Wales: study no.9Ã¢â¬ . University of New South Wales. Morton, S. (2006). Ã¢â¬Å"Community Safety in Practice Ã¢â¬â the importance of evaluationÃ¢â¬ . Community Safety Journal, Vol.5, Iss.1, pg.12. Read, T and Tilley, N. (2000). Ã¢â¬Å"Not Rocket Science? Problem-solving and crime reductionÃ¢â¬ . Crime Reduction Research Series Paper 6, Home Office. Rhodes, A. (2007). Ã¢â¬Å"Evaluation of Community Safety Policies and ProgramsÃ¢â¬ . RMIT University. Schuller, N. (2004). Ã¢â¬Å"Urban Growth and Community Safety: developing the impact assessment approachÃ¢â¬ . Community Safety Journal, Vol.3, Iss.4, pg.4. Varone, F., Jacob, S., De Winter, L. (2005). Ã¢â¬Å"Polity, Politics and Policy Evaluation in BelgiumÃ¢â¬ . Evaluation, Vol. 11, No. 3, pp.253-273.
Sunday, January 19, 2020
What is leadership? What is management? Leadership and management are two words that are considered synonymous but describe two distinct concepts. Both are needed in a successful organization. Leadership and management together will build and maintain a successful organization. Interest in leadership in the American culture increased in the early twentieth century and continues to development in context. Behavioral theories evolved to todayÃ¢â¬â¢s transformational leadership and visionary leadership. All the theories are attempting to identify leadership traits and behaviors. Leadership Term Paper: Excerpt If the role of situations is vital in matters of self-control, how much more significant must it be in connection with social control and leadership. If Ã¢â¬Å"character varies from situation to situation,Ã¢â¬ then it is fair to assume that leadership likewise varies. Consistency of behavior is doubtless a leadership trait, but behavior may vary according to situations, even on the part of any person. A person may be generally consistent in some situations and inconsistent in others. It is apparently necessary, therefore, to study situations in relation to personality reactions in order to account for ability, or for failure, to lead. Leadership Term Papers: Excerpt Situational leadership often explains leadership unevenness. A person may use leadership technique in a situation for which it is not intended with the result that it does not work well, or it fails. Every after dinner speaker has told more than one joke which he thought appropriate but which Ã¢â¬Å"fell flat,Ã¢â¬ because there were situational factors that the speaker did not suspect. Whenever a situation contains factors that a leader does not take into consideration, his leadership is endangered. A wise leader Ã¢â¬Å"knows his situations,Ã¢â¬ or else his leadership displays much unevenness. Leadership Research Paper: Excerpt The situational nature of leadership explains why a leader sometimes seems to contradict himself and to act like a hypocrite even though he loathes hypocrisy. It often happens, as any leader in an administrative position can testify, that a person may act sincerely and honestly in each of two different situations and find that he has contradicted himself, simply because the two situations are contradictory in certain particulars. Loyalty in one situation may contradict loyalty in another. A leader who desires to please is especially subject to this dilemma. Leadership vs. Management There are several distinctions between thoughts of management and leadership; some of the key points are discussed below. I believe that effective management ceases to reach its potential without respected leadership. Although leadership and management are necessary ingredients to creating actualized organizations. 1.Management implements the structures and tasks to create a holistic team of productive employees, while leadership sets the vision and creates an atmosphere where the teams commit to the mission and are encouraged to reach their potential. Management is more of a hands-on approach to ensure leaderships vision and strategy is in congruence with the companies operations. One of the goals of management is to ensure the organization effectively deploys of resources. One of the major goals of leadership is to assist customers and employees to understand the values and mission of the organization while having the responsibility of ensuring those constituencies are committed to the organizations value offering. I feel that leadership responsibility is to identify what the change initiatives need to be in conjunction with employees, customers and suppliers while managementÃ¢â¬â¢s responsibility is to ensure effective implementation of those initiatives. According to Senge; profound change initiatives invariability lead people to a heightened sense of meaning and aspiration. Leadership has the responsibility to ensure the opportunity for meaning and aspiration occur within the organization, great leaders strive to continually inspire such. Management has the opportunity to see to it that meaning and aspiration is actually being achieved while leadership creates the atmosphere for it to thrive. 1.Management challenges the vision of the company, which was created by leadership as to ensure the desired results are being achieved, while leadership identifies continual opportunities for a greater vision. According to Nonaka (quoted from Dance of Change), Ã¢â¬Å"A company is not a machine but a living organism. Much like an individual, it can have a collective sense of identity and shared purposeÃ¢â¬ ¦ a shared understanding of what the company stands forÃ¢â¬ . Leadership must create opportunities for that shared vision and collective sense of identity to emerge. Leadership can inspire this to happen through management developing initiatives within cross-department relationship building and teamwork building. Management has the responsibility to ensure this takes place while leadership sets the strategy and places the goals high on the corporate agenda. Leadership sets the priorities, while management gets the priorities done. Among many other tasks, Leadership has the responsibility to: 1.Develop an overall strategic vision for the organization or team 2.In conjunction with the organization, drive the desired results 3.Enable an atmosphere which encourages cross-functional teamwork 4.Be in-touch with the organization at all levels 5.Asks the high-level questions and ensures the answers are understood by all in the organization 6.Encourages the organization to explore alternatives and better ways of doing business 7.Assists the organization to see the big picture In contrast among other tasks, management has the following responsibilities: 1.Management includes the actual coordination of processes and work-flows 2.Includes the process of evaluating resources, assessment and measurement of various pieces throughout the organizations 3.Management includes ensuring that all feedback, comments, and innovative change initiative ideas are brought to the forefront of the decision making process 4.Seeks to make the planning process a more successful endeavor 5.Helps to implement the answers to the big questions into best practices for the organization The Role of Leadership in Strategy The role of leadership in strategy includes many facets some that are tangible and some that are not. For example the role of leadership in strategy is to determine what the big picture is and to ensure the organization has a plan for discovering those answers to the big questions. I believe the role of leadership in developing strategy is to create many areas of possibility for the organization and to create an atmosphere where employees feel committed to creating those possibilities. The example provided by Senge about what was happening in South Africa in the early 1990Ã¢â¬â¢s is a great one. Leadership of South Africa was trying to develop a set of alternative stories about what might happen in South Africa. They came together and developed several stories and tried to examine what the country will look like in the future. Leadership in fact, was trying to shape and define the story and to have this story be as positive as possible for the country. I believe the same high-level story development is the main responsibility of leadership in strategy for an organization at all levels. The role is for the leadership to define how they want the company to interact in the world and to develop a story that is much bigger than the organization. This story must be believed by all participants in the organization and must be walked the talk by leadership. For example the role of leadership in defining one of the key tenants for Whole Foods is Ã¢â¬Å"We Sell the Highest Quality Natural and Organic Products AvailableÃ¢â¬ . The role of leadership in developing this strategy is key to the companies fundamental belief system, and many of the employees and customers are committed to this strategy. The role of leadership is to create the vision and ensure it is in real congruence with the organizational realty. How is leadership critical to realizing strategy? I believe without leadership, strategy cannot be truly realized for a sustainable period. For example if there lacks a person or people who rise above and create the vision and see to it, that it is a manifestation throughout the organization, the strategy will be lost at sea. The waves of business cycles and changing resources will ensure the strategy is tossed and turned and will not go on a path toward true-fulfillment of the highest levels of success. Leadership sets the stage for strategy by asking the core questions, shaping the vision, and allowing for an atmosphere, which encourages the awareness and commitment to the strategy. Leadership is critical: 1.It creates a vessel for continuous improvement and adaptation of strategy 1.Ensures the proper questions are asked and answered 2.Creates an atmosphere for growth and change 3.Demonstrates effective behavior 4.Tries to get the highest potential out of resources 5.Creates the strategic vision 6.Brings together key aspects of the strategy The world we live in is changing at an alarming rate as a result of all the new discoveries that have been made over the years. These new discoveries have been aided by the availability of better learning facilities and equipment. These were not available in the early days. As scientists continue to discover and invent new equipment, the world is adapting them and incorporating them in the societies. As a result, the world we are living in is heavily dependent on inventions and machines to carry out tasks. Moreover, as a result of the advanced technology, people are getting more intelligent hence they are able carry out more researches of their own as well as make their own new inventions. In the medical world this has eased management as well as other treatment methods such as surgery.
Saturday, January 11, 2020
PRICE-RISE This is one topic in which I do not have to think before writing an article. The recent price rise in the essential commodities has hurt the common man where it hurts the most. The prices of onion , tomatoes, pulses have skyrocketed which adds flavor to the otherwise normal lifestyle of below average Indian. The above statement is a sarcasm in itself, but its necessary to show the grave situation which the normal citizens of this country are facing in the normal time.The prices of pulses which is nearly a staple diet for most of the country has risen to a large extent from the last 2 years. This may be due to less area under production for pulses in country or less per hectare yield of pulses or growth in demand. But the apathy is that there is no supportive government policy which could have helped India to raise the pulses production by giving more incentives to the farmers growing pulses, reducing loses to the intermediaries.One more benefit of higher pulses production is it takes less of nitrogenous fertilizers and is essential for regular wheat rice fields. The prices of onion has risen nearly 300% or more in the last month. The first reason is inefficient government policy which do not foresee demand supply situations, since onions are perishable quantities. The recent unseasonal rains in Nasik area has destroyed 10% of the crops, but still the quantum of price rise cannot be substantiated. The major culprit here is no control over the last leg of supply chain i. retailers , they are having the profit margin of more than 50% . They are speculating on the deficient supply and holding the common man on ransom. Moreover in India expert was stopped at a much later stage , which led to the spike in prices for the first instance. The rest and the last reason which is common to all, I would discuss in the later part of the article. There is another factor which is at play in high inflation rates across the commodities and it is ever increasing rates o f petrol and diesel.The common plea given by the government to the people of India during every rate increase is rising international crude prices, But they should first answer why there is double taxation by center and state on sale of petrol and diesel. My first question to the respective governments is why cannot these duties be reduced, so that atleast the transportation cost for the common commodities is reduced. Now let us come to the contentious issue which is common to all the commodities price rise and bone of contention between the government and opposition parties that is forward trading.Now some people will criticize me of knowing very little of the commodity trading, but my only point is why do you need speculative trading on the essential commodities, when you could have such trading on nearly each and every finance vehicle like equity shares, currency exchanges etc. The forward trading increases the speculation in markets and people who are really not in the supply ch ain of these commodities get into it and unnecessarily disrupts the chain leading to disparity in normal price mechanism of these commodities.Similarly prices of milk and other commodities could be discussed singly, but I just want to make a point that a concerted serious action is required for dealing the situation as it is hurting the foundation of common man economics in India. All the arms of government machinery, NGO's, common man should make an effort to discuss this problem and devise solutions which are practical and pragmatic in nature. Well I am doing my part by writing and publishing this article on net, so that our online community is more educated on the topic which is raging in India currently.
Thursday, January 2, 2020
Reducing Children Obesity/Solution Essay Presented to Mikayla Davis Writing 1310 Instructor Prepared by Monique Freeman 7 November 2016 Memorandum DATE: 7 November, 2016 TO: Ms. Davis, Writing 1310 Instructor FROM: Monique Freeman SUBJECT: Reducing obesity in children This is the report you asked for on 10 October 2016. It refers to the status of obese children. Here in this report are recommendations for reducing obesity in children around the world. I have gotten academic sources to prove my points and for my recommendations. The academic sources provide information on what is causing children to become obese and what we can do to fix it. Obesity in children has become one of the main problems in todayÃ¢â¬â¢s world. There are many solutions to solve the problem for obese children. The information I have gathered gives different solutions to help reduce children obesity. Recommendations for reducing obesity in children include more family involved physical activity, healthier eating, living in safe environments, etc. Executive summary Purpose and method of this report Children obesity is a major concern for people across the world. I have conducted research on why many children are becoming obese. There are various factors as to why many children are becoming obese. The purpose of this report is to propose solutions to solve the problem of children becoming obese. Findings and conclusions Childhood obesity is a major threat to the health ofShow MoreRelatedThe Effects Of Obesity On People, Cancers And Type 2 Diabetes1252 Words Ã |Ã 6 PagesIntroduction: Obesity has become a growing issue in the recent years and its increasing trend is now referred to as a Ã¢â¬ËpandemicÃ¢â¬â¢ by many researchers and scientists. With a Ã £3.2 billion currently estimated cost of overweight and obesity to the NHS, one can understand the growing interest in this matter. 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