Sunday, May 24, 2020
Since the beginning of time research and statistics have exercised a vital role in psychology. In this succinct writing an elaboration of how research and statistics are utilized in psychology is revealed. Furthermore, the how and why of such components are expounded herein and a detailed look at primary and secondary data are exposed. Research, statistics, primary, and secondary data are imperative in psychological analysis. Implementing each of these variants in psychological research may prove beneficial to the researcher when properly appropriated in psychological exploration. In that regard, this discussion begins by portraying the role that research plays in psychology and gives a general synopsis to define each role.Ã¢â¬ ¦show more contentÃ¢â¬ ¦Additionally, statistics can be utilized to reveal a theory as inaccurate. In a formal sense, Ã¢â¬Å"Statistics is a branch of mathematics that focuses on the organization, analysis, and interpretation of a group of numbers.Ã¢â¬ (Aron, Aron, Coups, 2009, p. 2). In addition to focusing on the organization and analysis of numbers, statistics is divided into two primary branches. The first branch of statistics is descriptive statistics and the second branch is inferential statistics. Descriptive statistics is relevant in defining or summarizing the role a group o f numbers play in research. However, inferential statistics assist the researcher in drawing conclusions and making inferences from numbers based on research, but not limited to that research. Inferential statistics go beyond the premature stage of numerical research and delve into a deeper level of comprehension for the researcher. Aron, et al (2009) states that, Ã¢â¬Å"statistics is a basic process employed by every human that requires observation. Furthermore, statistics help define what something means or what causes it.Ã¢â¬ Lastly, you perceive or expect a particular outcome based on your research and your intuitive nature. A prime example of implementing statistics in research can be conveyed through surveys. For example, an election poll may validate that 3 million voters are voting for Bill Clinton, whileShow MoreRelatedResearch Statistics and Psychology Paper977 Words Ã |Ã 4 PagesResearch Statistics and Psychology Paper Roberta Parker PSY/315 June 10, 2011 Dr. Julie Wilson Research Statistics and Psychology Paper Research plays a major role in psychology, which research is understood through statistics. Psychologists depend on research to understand theories and to understand how people behave, think, and feel. Research needs to be organized to be understood by psychologists; therefore statistics help organize the information and make the connection between the researchRead MoreResearch, Statistics, and Psychology Paper984 Words Ã |Ã 4 PagesResearch, Statistics, and Psychology Paper PSY 315 Research, Statistics, and Psychology Paper Two important factors of psychology and studying it are statistics and research. This paper will explain what research is and the scientific method. This paper will also explain how research is important to psychology. When a researcher does studies on psychology they receive data from the subjects, they are studying. In any type of research there are two major types of data, they are primary data andRead MoreThe Role of Research and Statistics in the Field of Psychology1358 Words Ã |Ã 6 PagesThe Role of Research and Statistics in the Field of Psychology Abstract Research and statistics are essential elements within the field of Psychology. Through the evolution of technology, the task of conducting adequate research and statistics methods have become abundant in methodology. Because of such, research collection and experimentation approaches of researchers and Psychologists, greatly vary in specificity. However, one method reigns true and consistent, and that is the ScientificRead MoreThe Role of Research and Statistics in the Field of Psychology1359 Words Ã |Ã 6 Pagesfor B. F. Skinners radical or operant behaviorism which has had a large impact on educational systems. Watson was one of the influential psychologists of the twentieth century. His material is still used in most psychology and educational psychology texts. Watson helped with defining the study of behavior anticipated Skinners emphasis on operant conditioning and the importance of learning and environmental influences in human development. WatsonÃ¢â¬â¢s criticized of Sigmund FreudRead MoreStatistics and Psychology1051 Words Ã |Ã 5 PagesStatistics and Psychology Paper There are numerous applications of statistical reasoning and research methods in the field of psychology. From simple aspects of reading and interpreting psychology articles, to completing personal research, statistics is a necessary concept to understand. The scientific method is essential to research, and many of the concepts cross the lines into statistics. It is also imperative for us to compare and contrast the characteristics of primary and secondary dataRead MoreDescriptive and Inferential Statistics1122 Words Ã |Ã 5 PagesRunning head: DESCRIPTIVE AND INFERENTIAL STATISTICS 1 Descriptive and Inferential Statistics DESCRIPTIVE AND INFERENTIAL STATISTICS 2 Descriptive and Inferential Statistics Descriptive and inferential statistics are incredibly similar forms of research testing within psychology. Each seeks to analyze, describe, and possibly predict a populationÃ¢â¬â¢s behavior. As with psychology itself, statistical analysis within psychology began as a philosophy (Goodwin, 2008). This philosophy quicklyRead MoreEssay about Examination of Clinical Psychology1197 Words Ã |Ã 5 PagesRunning head: EXAMINATION OF CLINICAL PSYCHOLOGY Examination of Clinical Psychology University of Phoenix PST/480 Karen Wilson Nov 14, 2011 Examination of Clinical Psychology Clinical psychology is a very important as well as popular part of the field of psychology that is used very often. To begin, a definition of clinical psychology will be included. According to APA (2009) Ã¢â¬Å"Clinical psychology attempts to use the principles of psychology to better understand, predict, andRead MoreDescriptive and Inferential Statistics955 Words Ã |Ã 4 PagesDescriptive and Inferential Statistics Statistical methods in psychology have two main branches, which are descriptive and inferential. They each play a major part in the data that is collected for research and other studies. This paper will show the functions of statistics, how descriptive and inferential statistics are defined and the relationship between the two. Statistics is a necessary tool in psychology. It provides data for research studies as well as providing background information andRead MoreI/O Psychology Paper788 Words Ã |Ã 4 PagesIndustrial/Organizational Psychology Pamela Groves PSY/435 January 7, 2012 Frank Del Grosso Jr. Industrial/Organizational Psychology The paper will examine the evolution of the field of industrial/organizational psychology, and how industrial/organizational psychology is different from other disciplines in psychology. Industrial/organization psychology can be used in organizations and it focuses on the employees performance and how to make it better. The report will include the role of research and statisticsRead MoreStatistical Research in Psychology999 Words Ã |Ã 4 PagesStatistical Research in Psychology Tiffany Fisher GEN 315 Abstract Many students, including myself, are unaware how important statistics can be to the research process in Psychology. In this report, I will discuss the method used to perform researches as well as the forms of data used through statistic in Psychology. This will include the advantages and disadvantages of each form used. Introduction Many studying Psychology might be shocked that statistics is a requirement. It is vital to
Wednesday, May 13, 2020
All Quiet on the Western Front, written by Erich Maria Remarque, is a thought provoking tale about war, and the soldiers who fight these wars. The main character is an 18 year old boy named Paul BÃ ¤umer. BÃ ¤umer, growing up in Germany, decides to enlist in the army alongside his classmates after persuasion from his teacher. His story begins at the front lines of World War One. After two weeks on the front, PaulÃ¢â¬â¢s company receives a reprieve from fighting. 80 of the original 150 men in the company (Second Company) return. During his time off, BÃ ¤umer begins to reflect upon the circumstances that brought him there, his brutal time in training, and the death of one of his close friends. Over the course of this time of reflection, reinforcements arrive, and BÃ ¤umerÃ¢â¬â¢s company is redeployed into the front. PaulÃ¢â¬â¢s unit is forced to go on a wire-laying mission. They are bombed, and lose many recruits on their return to camp. When they return, they learn that Paul and his classmatesÃ¢â¬â¢ former drill sergeant, Himmelstoss, has come to join them in the fight. As he goes to order his former pupils, two of PaulÃ¢â¬â¢s accomplices, Tjaden and Kropp, insult him. They go to military court and are sentenced to two days of jail time, in the campÃ¢â¬â¢s makeshift jail. The group, after this, is sent back to the front two days early along with the rest of the company. They fight for days. Paul laments about the loss of his and his fellow soldiersÃ¢â¬â¢ youth, stating Ã¢â¬ËI believe we are lost.Ã¢â¬â¢ Finally, SecondShow MoreRelatedAll Quiet On The Western Front By Erich Maria Remarque1482 Words Ã |Ã 6 PagesThe novel All Quiet on the Western Front by Erich Maria Remarque is a tale about a group of young gentlemen in Germany who decide to join the army, and fight in World War I for their country. The boys become interested in fighting for their country after their schoolmaster informs them about the importance of this war. With much excitement, the young men have high expectations of what they want the war to be like. Throughout the course of the novel, the attitudes and opinions of the boys change as
Wednesday, May 6, 2020
Critically illustrate the importance, and societal context of risk management within the adventure leisure industry In recent decades the emphasis on risks and risk management within the adventure leisure industry has been has been escalating and is now greater than ever. This emphasis is due to the introduction of more stringent legislation from the associated governing bodies, threatening more severe consequences if businesses do not practice within the regulated guidelines.The objective of this essay is to analyse risks within adventure activities and to determine the importance of the management of risk within this field of outdoor leisure. We will write a custom essay sample on Importance of Risk Management in the Adventure Leisure Industry or any similar topic only for you Order Now This will be achieved by researching past occurrences in the leisure industry that have resulted in accident or death, which could have been avoided had a thorough risk assessment been constructed. In addition, by exploring the motivation behind participating in such activities, this essay will uncover the degree to which risk is actually required in order for an adventure activity to occur.As written by (Barton 2007:2) Ã¢â¬Å"We are exposed to risk from the moment of our conception to our deathÃ¢â¬ . If this is the case, then undoubtedly there must be forces set into place in order to manage and assess these risks that we are subjected to in day to day life. If a risk is able to be assessed, the severity of it is able to be calculated. Consequently, the hazard that resulting from that risk is able to be determined and prevented. When planning a leisure activity, it is imperative that the organising party carries out an incredibly thorough and informative risk assessment.Hazards in adventure activities include falls from height, drowning, falling objects, lightning strikes, equipment failure, assault, cold injury, and many more (Barton 2007:12). The reason why a complete and logical risk assessment is necessary is so that leading personnel are able to provide proof that everything in their power has been done in order to prevent the activity resulting in any hazards or injuries to those participating.This will not only supply the organising body with a sense of comfort that the activity they are planning and instigating is safe so as to protect them from any potential legal involvement, but also the availability of a risk assessment is likely to be an appealing factor to prospective partakersÃ¢â¬Ë. Risks are iden tified by reviewing historical information and industry standards; interviewing subject matter experts; conducting brainstorming sessions with the organising team, vendors, and key stakeholders; and some times through simulation and scenario forecasting (Silvers 2004:52).Wilks and Davis (cited in Swarbrooke, 2003) explain how all discovered risks are able to be rated in order to decide the way in which they should be tackled. This can be done by comparing the predicted frequency of a hazard, by its severity. Frequent incidents with slight consequences can, in most situations, be considered an entirely tolerable risk, we might even say a trivial risk (Barton 2007:12). By rating a risk, it can be differentiated between a risk that has great potential to cause injury of death, and a risk that can easily be tackled and therefore will barely be influential in the construction of an activity.In March of 1993 four teenagers were killed in a canoeing accident in Lyme Regis whilst on a school trip. The deaths of the young students was widely put down to lack of supervision and negligence which consists in Ã¢â¬Å"the duty of care and consequent injuryÃ¢â¬ (Scott 1993:45). When carrying out such potentially dangerous activities Ã¢â¬Å"One cannot overemphasize the importance of supervisionÃ¢â¬ (Hronek et al 2002:255). The evidence that supported the Llyme Bay legal battle that followed was that Ã¢â¬Ëthe coas tguard owed the kayakers a duty of care and that they had conducted the search and rescue operation negligentlyÃ¢â¬â¢ (Fulbrook 2005:27-28). Being careful and prepared are not only sensible attributes for activity co-ordination, it is ever more important for the organising personnel. This is progressively more significant as the management of risk is increasingly regulated into legislation and policy (Silvers 2004:170). The law is becoming much more focused upon the adventure leisure industry after such events as Lyme Bay illustrated above. Bradford (2000) explains that during the early 1990Ã¢â¬Ës, organisers of outdoor adventure activities were able to volunteer to abide by codes of practice set up by a variety of independent organisations.A company may have wished to have done so in order to improve their business. By stating that they were operating within an organisations health and safety regulations, they would have been able to project a sense of reassurance across to their customers. Following the tragedy in March 1993, the attitude of many changed dramatically and there was a wide spread belief that more needed to be done to encourage safer organisations. This would help to prevent any further disasters and deaths. The first development of more enforced regulations being placed into practice was in 1993.The English Tourist Board brought together a group representing most of the voluntary approval bodies and other interested parties, who issued a code of practice for outdoor adventure leisure activities (Bradford 2000). Followed by the Activity Centres (Young Persons safety) Act 1995. The introduction of more intense and purposeful legislation has consequently placed evermore pressure upon the organisers of such activities. This has lead to leisure managers having to direct far more attention to the health and safety of those participating in the activities they are providing.As well as an activity organizing company wishing to protect their customers to the greatest extent for fear of the legal confrontation that may follow if accused of irresponsible and neglectful practice, there are other reasons why an organizing body may wish to carry out a thorough risk assessment. If an accident was to occur which involved a member of staff, the employer risks losing money through the provision of sick pay, as well as losing an employee for an undetermined period of time. Pro-active management helps to eliminate such an occurrence arising.In addition, the execution of the introduction of control measures helps to define areas of responsibility and communicates a standard for performance. Despite the owner of an organization having the most recognized power concerning any health and safety issues, authority is able to be un-officially segregated throughout the businesses personal hierarchy. This is determined by the position of power an individual is in within the organization: Manager, assistant manager, supervisor, and so on. The benefit of dividing up job roles and esponsibility in such a way is that every position of employment will experience a sense of responsibility; each to a different degree, yet still the sensation of business involvement and therefo re the motivation to excel in their field will be present. Pro-active management strategies can be the most effective strategies because they are implemented according to the planning of the organization, rather than because of a need to respond to outside pressure and expectations from the public or a governing body Smith (2005:82). Essentially this is the detection and managing of a problematic issue, before it has the opportunity to present itself within the business. Risk assessment therefore plays an intricate part of this process. Successful pro-active management within the organization will help to ensure that the customers along with the members of staff are constantly and consistently satisfied and comfortable. It is evident that the success of an activity regarding its safety and reliance is significantly related to the experience and awareness of the activities leader.Experienced leaders develop a sixth sense of when the odds are beginning to stack up against them and they will automatically see an activity in the wider context, Barton (2007:89). It is therefore imperative that that a leader of any nature of leisure activity is able to predict potential future hazards and subsequently learn from their previous mistakes. According to Barton (2007:89), leader of activities that are not so experienced are less likely to see the signals of an approaching risk, and tend to view minor set-backs as isolated incidents, rather than as bricks in a growing wall. OrganisersÃ¢â¬â¢ must realise that these seemingly unimportant hindrances will gather pace and build up to a much larger scale problematic occurrence. Despite the increasing demand for safer and risk free activities, a balance must be established in order to keep within legislation created by the governing bodies, whilst still creating the same sense of adventure and possible danger that has lead to the success of an adventure activity. If every risk in life was assessed and accounted for, and every hazard was liminated, the world would be an incredibly safe, organised, and trouble free place. However, risks cause excitement and adrenalin within oneÃ¢â¬â¢s life. Without risk, there is no fear of risk, in which case there are no opportunities presented for one to take risks. As explained by Barton (2007:2) If we bring up children to believe that physical, emotional or intellectual risks are to be avoided, then we can hardly be surprised if the future does not bring great people; p oets, artists, play writes, successors to Captain Cook, to Darwin, and to Shakespeare.Without some form of risk, engineers could never have designed the great bridges that span the widest rivers, homes would still be heated by fireplaces or parlour stoves, electric power utilities would not exist, polio would still be maiming children, no airplanes would fly, and space travel would just be a dream (Aven 2003:2) The word Ã¢â¬ËAdventureÃ¢â¬â¢ implies that there is an element of risk involved in the activity that is to be undertaken. The reason why this is a positive attribute to the organising body is that many leisure seekers are in search of a sense of adventure, risk and an adrenaline rush. Despite the general consensus that every risk should be accounted for and every attempt should be made to ensure no hazards present themselves, without the lingering sensation in the very back of a participant mind that something may go wrong; a rope may break, a parachute may not open, the Ã¢â¬ËAdventureÃ¢â¬â¢ is almost completely removed from the Ã¢â¬ËLeisure ActivityÃ¢â¬â¢.To conclude, when regarding the adventure leisure industry, the concept of risk management and assessment are fundamental aspects that must be constantly considered when running a business that provides such activities. The laws that have been introduced throughout recent years have placed increasing pressure on organizations to concentrate on the health and safety of their patrons to a much greater degree. Failure to do so, as has been seen i n the past throughout such incidents as Lyme Bay, may well result in powerful legal consequences or even closure of their establishment.There is no doubt that risk and uncertainty are important concepts to address for supporting decision-making in many situations. The challenge is to know how to describe, measure, and communicate risk and uncertainty (Aven 2003:4). However, the popularity that adventure leisure activities hold derives from the exact concept of risk itself. Participants of such activities choose to take part in order to; gain a sense of personal accomplishment, face their fears, experience a surge of adrenalin, and ultimately test themselves to their physical and mental boundaries.A balance must be established within the process of managing risk. If this balance can be successfully determined, than the adventure leisure industry will be able to provide the same level of audacious activity, whilst staying within all governing guidelinesÃ¢â¬â¢, and providing the highest degree of safety for all those that they accommodate for. How to cite Importance of Risk Management in the Adventure Leisure Industry, Papers
Monday, May 4, 2020
Question: Discuss about thePersonal Health Profile. Answer: Introduction A personal health profile is essentially a simple survey that reveals a snapshot of an individuals current health status as well as risk for certain diseases and conditions. It is fundamental for people to know their health needs and risks since it plays a major role as far as long-term health and wellness are concerned. Completing a health profile is critical since it is an important tool to assist one in pointing out health risks early enough so that measures can be taken before they cause serious problems. A personal health profile asks about an individuals lifestyle habits such as nutrition, physical activity, drug use as well as relationships (NSW Kids and Families, NSW Health, 2015). Focusing on nutrition as far as my personal health profile is concerned, my diet does not contain a lot of vegetables although I prefer taking a lot of fruits. A few times a week I order for fast food like sushi and hungry jacks. My dinners usually contain meat, chicken, tacos, pastas, soda and ba ked dinners. My diet has to have meat since I have anemia. In regards to physical activity, I walk for at least ten kilometers three times a week. Physically I am thin build and during my free time I go for horse riding. As far as relationships are concerned, I live with my father, mother, and little sister. I have a small but wonderful circle of close friends and I always enjoy spending my time with them. When it comes to drug use, I take alcohol during the weekends. I take nasal sprays and zertec since I have allergies. In case I have a headache, I usually take panadol. The society tends to focus on treatment of a disease or condition rather than preventive measures (Levinthal, 2014). People wait until they are sick for them to go to the hospital or to seek medical assistance. Very few people focus on strategies aimed at maintaining better health so as to reduce their risk of suffering from certain conditions which can be prevented early (Meunier, 2014). One aspect of my lifestyle that influences my health is nutrition. As far as my food choices are concerned, I like eating fruits, fast foods like sushi and hungry jacks. My dinners usually contain meat, chicken, tacos, pasta, soda and baked dinners. My diet has a few vegetables although I do not prefer them. In the morning I usually alternate between coffee and tea. Dinner is usually my heaviest meal of the day. When I am stressed, I tend to eat a lot of food, especially fast foods like sushi and soft drinks for example sprite soda. There are various factors that dictate my food choices. One of them is social factors. The society through the use of media has popularized fast food companies. Since they deliver to peoples door steps it makes it easier for people to access their product (Harvard Medical School Health Topics A-Z, 2013). Whenever I am alone I always make a call to certain fast food companies and within minutes they bring my sushi. If this service was not available I would be forced to go to the kitchen and prepare myself a meal. Economic factors also determine my choice of food. Individuals buy what they can afford which is dictated by the economy (Inkster, 2014). Currently, my mother and father are employed in one of the best companies in the country. As such every day they buy meat although it is relatively expensive since they can afford it. In any given day it is very hard to find my mother making a recipe that does not have meat in it. Educational determinants also play a huge role. Once individuals are informed of the potential risks or benefits of choosing a certain diet then it is mostly likely they will adapt it or discard it if it is risky to their health (Gentilcore, 2016). Personally, I never liked fruits but my mother made it a habit of ensuring that I take a fruit after taking all my meals of the day. She later explained to be the benefits of taking fruits and since then, I always take fruits after every meal. Another determinant of choice of diet is medical conditions. If an individual has been diagnosed with a certain condition or disease, then the medical expert advises the patient to avoid or favor a specific kind of diet as a means of treating the disease or problem (Harvard Medical School Commentaries on Health, 2014). Personally, I have anemia so I tend to favor a diet with a lot of meat in it. My diet contains a lot of meat. Eating meat in excess is interfering with my health and fitness goals. According to studies, too much meat fuels cancer (Healey, 2016). I exercise but my weight never goes down as a result of too much meat. I also feel very tired most of the time. As far as drug use is concerned, I take alcohol, medication as well as beverages. There are several reasons as to why I use these drugs. When it comes to medication, I have allergies so the doctor prescribed specific medications such as zertec and nasal sprays. These two drugs are primarily used to relieve the symptoms of allergies (Meunier, 2014). Allergies are very distracting to me since they produce symptoms such as constant sneezing running nose and redness of eyes. I also take panadol tablets whenever I experience headaches. Panadol is a drug aimed at relieving pain. It provides fast, effective temporarily relief of aches and pains such as headaches, sore throat, migraines as well as dental pain. My doctor and my parent are my greatest influence since they have encouraged me to take the medications every time I experience an allergic reaction. These drugs have helped me to cope with my allergies. During the weekends I take alcohol. It is only on the weekend that we meet up with all my friends to spend time together share what has been happening in our lives as we watch different football leagues playing. Since the setting is in a club, we are forced to buy alcohol so as to remain on the premises. Also, drink alcohol because it makes me lively and confident therefore I am able to enjoy myself and have a good time. Without it, I am usually dull since naturally, I am a shy person. My friends influence me the most since when I ask for a soda instead of alcohol, the laugh at me and patronize me hence I am left with no choice but to order an alcoholic drink since they deem it as a drink taken by mature adults. As a result of taking too much alcohol, my judgment is impaired and I tend to make unwise decisions (Acred, 2014). I also experience a hangover the next day. As far as beverages are concerned, I take tea or coffee in the morning. These two are stimulants and they help to awaken the mind and keep me alert for the day ahead (Muth, 2015). I also take soft drinks especially after taking my lunch since it quenches my thirst. As far as influences are concerned my mother influences me and my family mainly because, since I was young she either tea or coffee every morning. The consequences of taking tea or coffee for many years are that you tend to be addicted. Whenever I fail to take either of the two beverages in the morning I always feel dull. All in all, financial status, education and behavior are some of the health determinants that influence a persons health (Inkster, 2014). As far financial status is concerned, individuals who have money can be able to afford a balanced diet hence making it easier to for them to maintain a good health (Taylor, 2015). In regards to education, an educated person has access to information about nutrition and factors that contribute to various diseases hence he or she is more likely to take measures to improve his or her health. Finally, a persons behavior dictate his or her health status for instance smoking, excessive alcohol consumption as well as insufficient physical activity is very risk and can cause about lifestyle diseases (Levinthal, 2014). I have developed an action plan with specific goals to ensure that I retain the good behavior and do away with the bad ones as far as my health is concerned. First, I will increase the number of days that I engage in physical activity to five days per week (Martinez Robinson, 2012). Secondly, I will reduce the amount of meat I consume and increase my cabbage intake. Thirdly, I will diversify when it comes to the types of fruits I eat so as to maintain this trend of eating fruits (Meunier, 2014). Finally, I will reduce my alcohol intake to a maximum of two bottles per week. On a personal level, the process has taught me that my health is dictated by the decisions that I make. When everybody engages in this process then we will have schools and societies that are healthy. I have learned that our health is highly influenced by factors surrounding us and hence the need to examine issues in our society that we live in. References Gentilcore, D. (2016).Food and health in early modern Europe: Diet, medicine and society, 1450-1800. Harvard Medical School Commentaries on Health. (2014). Harvard Medical School Health Topics A-Z. (2013). In Healey, J. (2016).Cancer prevention. In Acred, C. (2014).Alcohol and health. Inkster, K. (2014).Vegan vitality: Your complete guide to an active, healthy, plant-based lifestyle. Levinthal, C. F. (2014).Drugs, behavior, and modern society. Martinez, M. P., Robinson, H. (2012).Obesity and weight management: Challenges, practices and health implications. New York: Nova Science Publishers, Inc. Meunier, Y. A. (2014).Medicine of the future: Risk assessment, elimination or mitigation and action plans for 28 diseases and medical conditions. Muth, N. D. (2015).Sports nutrition for health professionals. NSW Kids and Families, NSW Health. (2015).My personal health record. Taylor, S. E. (2015).Health psychology.